Differentialities between Humans and Cyno
There are some differences in the immune cell populations of human and cynomolgus Macaques. Although both species have high IgG and low numbers of B-cells, cynomolgus Macaques have higher levels CD31 than humans. They are, in fact, the most widely used monkey species today in research labs. Learn more about the differences between humans and Cyno.
Although they are endangered, the Maldives’ cynomolgus Macaques remain a part of their culture. Macaques were originally found on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, but their range has expanded to include the border with China and southern Bangladesh. Their genetic diversity is very low and their habitats are restricted. Despite these challenges, Macaques have been a popular addition in animal sanctuary facilities across the globe.
While rhesus macaques tend to be more frequently used in preclinical toxicology research, the cynomolgus monkey is a great model for developmental or reproductive toxicology, particularly in research that involves locally administered drugs. Researchers tested eight adult female Macaques in this study. Additionally, the researchers tested them for four major diseases and certified their houses by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International.
IgG Constant Domains
The IgG structure binds to various types of FcRn. We identified three types FcRns in a recent study and their constant domains. These domains allow IgG bind to both FcRna b and a. A model of IgG/FcRn interactions supports our findings. These domains are described and discussed in detail.
The Fab domain and Cyno are the two most popular IgG molecule structures. The Fab domain is a monomer made up of three light chains. Each light chain contains one Cyno as well as one IgG constantdomain. The common Fab domain sequence makes these domains related. This structural analysis is important for understanding Fc and FcRn interactions and the domains that influence them.
IgG Hinge Regions
Four major subclasses in IgG differ in terms of the number of disulfide bond formations in their hinge areas. The classical A- and B isomers of each of these isomers can be referred to. Both are connected by a disulfide bonds that links the carboxyterminal cysteine in light chain to the cysteine position 220 in heavy chain.
The hinge region acts as a link between the Fab arm and Fc portion of IgG molecules. The conformations of the Fab arms can be affected by this region, which differs between subclasses. The hinge exon in IgG1 is composed of 15 amino acid and is very flexible. IgG2’s hinge region only contains 12 amino acids. It also lacks double Glycines (position 235-6). This hinge region is encoded in the CH2 region.
Virus Burden In Cynomolgus Macaques
Recent research examined the role of immune system in determining viral burden among cynomolgusian Macaques. There are many ways to acquire viruses, including serial in-vivo passage. Viruses are capable of reproducing and infecting macaques at different rates, depending upon their host species. This study investigated whether different viruses could cause different immune responses in macaques.
The virus content was assessed in the nasal wash of infected Rhesus macaques. At two days after infection, the amount of viral DNA in both species reached its peak. It rose to between 2.9 x107 and 4.8×107 cDNA copy/ml by 11 day, and fell to 1.8×104 cDNA copy/ml at 18 day. The nasal wash of cynomolgus monkeys was found to have a higher level of RNA than the rhesus macaques.